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Contact: Nicolás Cuenca (cuenca@ua.es)

title

   Amacrine cells

DESCRIPTION

 

Amacrine cells - Carp
Amacrine cells - Carp
Wholemount retina.
Immunostain: Calmodulin
Amacrine cells - Carp
Amacrine cells - Carp
Wholemount retina.
Immunostain: Calmodulin
Amacrine cells - Chicken
Amacrine cells - Chicken
Amacrine and horizontal cells.
Immunostain, calretinin
Amacrine cells - Fish
Amacrine cells - Fish
Wholemount retina. Amacrine and bipolar cells.
Immunostain: Calmodulin
Amacrine cells - Fish
Amacrine cells - Fish
Wholemount retina. Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Carp    Carp    Chicken    Fish    Fish   
              
Amacrine cells - Fish
Amacrine cells - Fish
Wholemount retina. Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Amacrine cells - Hamster
Amacrine cells - Hamster
All amacrine cells.
Immunostain. Parvalbumin
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Starburst amacrine cells.
Immunostain. ChAT Choline acetyl transferase
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Wholemount. Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Wholemount retina. Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Fish    Hamster    Squirrel    Squirrel    Squirrel   
              
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Starburst amacrine cells.
Immunostain. ChAT Choline acetyl transferase
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells.
Immunostain. Calretinin (red) Glycine (green)
Amacrine cells - Cat
Amacrine cells - Cat
Wholemount. Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Amacrine cells - Cat
Amacrine cells - Cat
Dopaminergic cells.
Immunostain: Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Wholemount Histochemistry.
Diaphorase
Squirrel    Squirrel    Cat    Cat    Monkey   
              
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Wholemount Histochemistry.
Diaphorase
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
All amacrine cells.
Immunostain. Calretinin
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
All amacrine cells.
Immunostain. Calretinin
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
All amacrine cells.
Immunostain. Calretinin, Connexin 36
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Histochemistry.
Diaphorase
Monkey    Monkey    Monkey    Monkey    Monkey   
              
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Amacrine cells - Squirrel
Starburst amacrine cells, bipolar
Immunostain. Calbindin (green) ChAT Choline acetyl transferase (red)
Amacrine cells - Rat
Amacrine cells - Rat
Starburst amacrine cells and horizontal cells
Immunostain. Calbindin (green) ChAT Choline acetyl transferase (red)
Amacrine cells - Turtle
Amacrine cells - Turtle
Gabaergic amacrine cells and horizontal cells
Immunostain: GABA (green) and eNOS (red)
Amacrine cells - Rat
Amacrine cells - Rat
Gycinergic amacrine cells and calretinin positive cells
Imunistain: Glycine and Calretinin
Amacrine cells - Monkey.
Amacrine cells - Monkey
GABAergic amacrine cells
Immunostain, GABA
Squirrel    Rat    Turtle    Rat    Monkey   
              
Amacrine cells - Human
Amacrine cells - Human
Wholemount, Histochemistry.
Diaphorase
Amacrine cells - Human
Amacrine cells - Human
Substance P amacrine cells IR
Immunostain: Substance P
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Wholemount retina, All amacrine cells
Immunostain: Calretinin
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
GABAergic amacrine cells
Immunostain, GABA
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine cells - Monkey
Amacrine and bipolar cells
Immunostain, Glycine
Human    Human    Monkey    Monkey    Monkey   
              
Amacrine cells - Turtle
Amacrine cells - Turtle
Wholemount, Starburst amacrine cells and calbindin-IR.
Immunostain. ChAT Choline acetyl transferase (red) Calbindin (green)
      Turtle         

 

 

 

Amacrine cells are interneurons located in the most inner layer of the inner nuclear layer of the vertebrate retina. They are synaptically active in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer, that influences retinal signal processing in response to visual stimuli at the level of contact between the bipolar and ganglion cells. Amacrine cells are so named because they are nerve cells thought to lack an axon (Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1892) but today we know that certain large field amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina can have long "axon-like" processes, which probably function as true axons. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells. They are classified by the width of their receptive field, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. Most are inhibitory using either GABA or glycine as neurotransmitters. Functionally, they are responsible for complex processing of the retinal image, specifically adjusting image brightness and, by integrating sequential activation of neurons, detecting motion.

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 Image use

The entire contents of this site are copyrighted. Images may be downloaded from this site for educational, non-profit use only (such as a school report). If you need higher resolution images, please contact me: Nicolás Cuenca (cuenca@ua.es).

 

 Credits

This webpage is a creation of Nicolás Cuenca of the Department of Physiology, Genetics and Microbiology at the University of Alicante.

 

 Thanks to

Technical research services of the University of Alicante.

 

© 2008 Todos los Derechos Reservados a Nicolás Cuenca Navarro

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