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Contact: Nicolás Cuenca (cuenca@ua.es)

title

   Bipolar cells

DESCRIPTION

 

Bipolar cells - Rat
Bipolar cells - Rat
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Rat
Bipolar cells - Rat
Photoreceptors and cone bipolar cells
Immunostain: Recoverin
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Cat
Bipolar cells - Cat
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Mouse
Bipolar cells - Mouse
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Rat    Rat    Monkey    Cat    Mouse   
Bipolar cells - Human
Bipolar cells - Human
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Cone bipolar and amacrine cells
Immunostain: Glycine
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Photoreceptors and cone bipolar cells
Immunostain: Calbindin
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Cone bipolar and horizontal cells in fovea
Immunostain: Parvalbumin and Calbindin
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Human    Monkey    Monkey    Monkey    Monkey   
Bipolar cells - Octodon
Bipolar cells - Octodon
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Octodon
Bipolar cells - Octodon
ON rod bipolar cells
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Fish
Bipolar cells - Fish
Mixed On rod Bipolar cell
Immunostain: PKC Alpha
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Cone bipolar in the fovea
Immunostain: Recoverin (red).
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Cone bipolar and rod bipolar cells in the fovea
Immunostain: Recoverin (red) PKC alpha.
Octodon    Octodon    Fish    Monkey    Monkey   
Bipolar cells - Rat
Bipolar cells - Rat
Cones and cone bipolar cells
Immunustain: Transducin (green) Recoverin (red, without photoreceptors)
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Bipolar cells - Monkey
Cones and cones bipolar cells
   Rat    Monkey         

 

 

 

Bipolar cells are a type of neuron located in the inner nuclear layer and transfer information from the outer plexiform cells to the inner retina. They have a central body from which two sets of processes arise. The dendrites that receive information from the photoreceptors and horizontal cells and pass it on to the ganglion and amacrine cells through their axon. Bipolar cells make synapses from either rods or cones, and they are designated rod bipolar or cone bipolar cells respectively. There are ten distinct types of cone bipolar cells in mammalian retina, and only one type of rod bipolar cell. Based on how they react to glutamate released by photoreceptor bipolar cells can be classified into two different groups, ON and OFF, cells, either through a metabotropic (ON) or ionotropic (OFF) receptor. When light hits a photoreceptor cell, the photoreceptor hyperpolarizes, and releases less glutamate. ON bipolar cells will respond to this change by depolarizing and OFF bipolar cells will respond by hyperpolarizing.

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 Image use

The entire contents of this site are copyrighted. Images may be downloaded from this site for educational, non-profit use only (such as a school report). If you need higher resolution images, please contact me: Nicolás Cuenca (cuenca@ua.es).

 

 Credits

This webpage is a creation of Nicolás Cuenca of the Department of Physiology, Genetics and Microbiology at the University of Alicante.

 

 Thanks to

Technical research services of the University of Alicante.

 

© 2008 Todos los Derechos Reservados a Nicolás Cuenca Navarro

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